Classification and localization of electromagnetic and ultrasonic pulsed emitters

[pdf] Classification and localization of electromagnetic and ultrasonic pulsed emitters
Outstanding Thesis Award Recipient 2017-2018 Edition
Director(es): Robles, Guillermo
Departamento/Instituto: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica
Titulación: Programa Oficial de Doctorado en Ingeniería Eléctrica, Electrónica y Automática
Fecha de edición: 2017-12
Fecha de defensa: 2017-12-18
Tribunal: Presidente: Andrea Cavallini.- Secretario: José Antonio García Souto.- Vocal: Iliana Portugués Peters
Palabras clave: Ultrasonic pulsed emitters , Electromagnetic waves , Radiative sources , Signal processing , Algorithms , Monte Carlo methods
Derechos: Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivadas 3.0 España

Abstract  – The localization of radiative sources is very important in many fields of work such as: sonar, radar and underwater radar, indoor localization in wireless networks, earthquake epicenter localization, defective assets localization in electrical facilities and so forth. In the process of locating radiative sources exist many issues which can provoke errors in the localization. The signals acquired may belong to different sources or they can be mixed with environmental noise, then, their separation before using localization algorithms is of great interest to be efficient and accurate in the computational process. Furthermore, the geometry and radiation characteristics of the receivers, the nature of the signal or their measuring process may cause deviations in the signal onset calculus and therefore the source localization could be displaced from the actual position. In this thesis, there are three kinds of algorithms to undertake three steps in the emitter localization: signal separation, onset and time delay estimation of the signals and source localization. For each step, in order to reduce the error in the localization, several algorithms are analyzed and compared in each application, to choose the most reliable. As the first step, to separate different kinds of signals is of interest to facilitate further processing. In this thesis, different optimization techniques are presented over the power ratio (PR) maps method. The PR uses a selective spectral signal characterization to extract the features of the analyzed signals. The technique identifies automatically the most representative frequency bands which report a great separation of the different kinds of signals in the PR map. After separating and selecting the signals, it is of interest to compare the algorithms to calculate the onset and time delay of the pulsed signals to know their performance because the time variables are inputs to the most common triangulation algorithms to locate radiative and ultrasonic sources. An overview of the algorithms used to estimate the time of flight (ToF) and time differences of arrival (TDoA) of pulsed signals is done in this thesis. In the comparison, there is also a new algorithm based on statics of high order, which is proposed in this thesis. The survey of their performance is done applied to muscle deep estimation, localization in one dimension (1D), and for the localization of emitters in three dimensions (3D). The results show how the presented algorithm yields great results. As the last step in the radiative source localization, the formulation and principle of work of both iterative and non-iterative triangulation algorithms are presented. A new algorithm is presented as a combination of two already existing improving their performance when working alone. All the algorithms, the proposed and the previous which already exist, are compared in terms of accuracy and computational time. The proposed algorithm reports good results in terms of accuracy and it is one of the fastest in computational time. Once the localization is achieved, it is of great interest to understand how the errors in the determination of the onset of the signals are propagated in the emitter localization. The triangulation algorithms estimate the radiative source position using time variables as inputs: ToF, TDoA or pseudo time of flight (pToF) and the receiver positions. The propagation of the errors in the time variables to the radiative source localization is done in two dimensions (2D) and 3D. New spherical diagrams have been created to represent the directions where the localization is more or less sensible to the errors. This study and their sphere diagrams are presented for several antenna layouts. Finally, how the errors in the positioning of the receivers are propagated to the emitter localization is analyzed. In this study, the effect in the propagation of both the relative distance from the receivers to the emitter and the direction between them has been characterized. The propagation of the error considering the direction is also represented in spherical diagrams. For a preferred direction identified in the spheres, the propagated error in the source localization has been quantified regarding both the source distance and the magnitude of the errors in the receivers positioning.

Energy harvesting for a smart sensor with NFC capability

Autor/Author: Javier Molina
Director/Supervisor: Guillermo Robles
Master Thesis Document in pdf.

 

Abstract – Modern life’s concerns regarding unnecessary energy wasting and the unstoppable development of electrical engineering gave birth to the concept of energy harvesting. All this, along with an overwhelming number of internet connected devices, make necessary new smart devices to make easier our lives not only at home but also in industrial environments. Throughout this project, the feasibility of using a Peltier cell as a thermoelectric generator is discussed in order to scavenge energy from a heat source. This project aims at using this system in dicult access locations to create a smart sustainable system that can keep track of relevant parameters such as temperature, pressure or radiation. By implementing this self-powered system, there is no need to replace batteries when fully discharged, it is only necessary collect the data when required. In particular, this Peltier cell supplies an energy harvester module that powers a standalone microcontroller to establish a communication with a NFC module. This device embedded with a NFC tag will store the parameters measured by a sensor. This novel approach is intended to allow any NFC enabled device such as any modern smartphone to access this data to be subsequently analised and take action when needed.

 

Resumen – Las preocupaciones de hoy en da con respecto al consumo abusivo energetico sumado al gran desarollo reciente de la ingeniera electrica y electronica han dado como fruto el concepto de energy harvesting. Ademas, el mundo en el que vivimos con un mayor numero de dispositivos conectados a internet hacen necesario dispositivos inteligentes para facilitar nuestras vidas, no solo en casa, si no tambien en el entorno industrial. En este proyecto se expone la viabilidad de usar una celula Peltier que es un dispositivo termoeléctrico para proporcionar energa a partir de una fuente de calor. Este proyecto persigue usar este sistema en sitios de difcil acceso y crear un sistema sostenible que lleve a cabo un sistema de recogida de datos, como temperatura o presion. La ventaja que ofrece un sistema como este es que no es necesario cambiar la batera, puesto que el sistema se autoalimenta. Concretamente, la celula Peltier suministra energa a un modulo de almacenamiento que establece una comunicacion con un modulo NFC. Este dispositivo contiene una etiqueta NFC que almacena los datos recogidos por un sensor. Este enfoque permite a cualquier operario con un dispostivo que permita la lectura de etiquetas NFC, como por ejemplo cualquier smartphone moderno, acceder a estos datos para analizarlos y tomar decisiones si es necesario.

 

Movimiento en acimut y altura controlado por gestos mediante un acelerómetro conectado a Arduino

Autor: Sánchez Hernández, Víctor Manuel
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo

Resumen

A lo largo de este documento se describe el estudio de diversas soluciones dirigidas a la regulaci´on mediante gestos en altura y acimut de un dispositivo. Debido a la existencia de posibles escenarios que imposibilitan el trabajo humano directo, existe la necesidad de controlar procesos de forma remota a trav´es de una interfaz humano-m´aquina. Con el objetivo de hacer dicho control m´as ergon´omico e intuitivo, se pretende realizar el mismo mediante gestos. En este caso concreto, para ilustrar un posible entorno de trabajo, se estudia el control remoto de la posici´on de una antena de medida de descargas parciales en aislantes el´ectricos. Para dicho fin se utilizar´a un microcontrolador Arduino en varias configuraciones constituyendo dos m´etodos distintos de adquisici´on de datos de posici´on. La primera configuraci´on constar´a de un sensor capacitivo construido con planchas de papel de aluminio, modificando la posici´on de la antena en funci´on de la variaci´on de la capacidad percibida por dicho sensor. En la b´usqueda de una soluci´on m´as precisa y con una mayor probabilidad de implantaci´on industrial, se valorar´a la utilizaci´on de un aceler´ometro para llevar a cabo la funci´on descrita con anterioridad. Ambas configuraciones se utilizar´an para actuar sobre servomotores que componen el elemento de regulaci´on.

Palabras clave: Arduino, gestos, instrumentaci´on, aceler´ometros, sensores capacitivos, interfaz humano-m´aquina.

Documento en pdf (Spanish)

URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10016/23100

Abstract

The present document describes the research made with the aim of the regulation of height and azimuth through gestures, taking into account diverse solutions. Due to the existence of possible enviroments where human manual work is not possible, there is the need of remote control of processes through an man-machine interface. As a consequence, gesture control is introduced to make this operation more intuitive and convenient. This document in particular carries out the study of the adjustment of an measuring antenna for partial discharges inside electrical insulators. In order to reach this goal, an Arduino microcontroller is used in different configurations, establishing two different methods of position acquiring. The first configuration includes a capacitive sensor based on aluminium films. Changes in capacitance are translated into position adjustments. Trying to achieve better accuracy and an easier industrial implementation, an accelerometer is used to detect this variety of gertures. Both configurations are used to control several servomotors which integrate the regulation method.

Keywords: Arduino, gestures, Instrumentation, accelerometer, capacitive sensors, man-machine interface (MMI).

Sensor inteligente basado en microprocesador de bajo consumo

Autor: Pérez Prieto, Beatriz
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo
Acceso al documento de la tesis de máster en pdf.

 

Resumen – En el presente trabajo se analiza la viabilidad de crear un sensor inteligente de bajo consumo. El principal objetivo es la monitorización de parámetros mediante un sistema que no precise de cableado para la transmisión de los datos y de una alimentación de la red. Así, se enviará la información con un dispositivo de comunicación inalámbrica y se alimentará con energía local procedente del ambiente en el que se sitúe el sensor. Para la adquisición y proceso de los datos se emplea el microcontrolador de bajo consumo STM32L432, que permanecerá dormido hasta que reciba la orden de comenzar con la recogida de datos con el fin de reducir el consumo de potencia. En cuanto al envío de los datos, se prueban diversas alternativas de comunicación inalámbrica. Posteriormente, se realiza un análisis sobre la energía que se obtiene de tres fuentes distintas conectadas a un sistema de recolección de energía y se establece cuál es la más adecuada para la aplicación. Este trabajo precisa tomar como base el proyecto Caracterización de células Peltier para la alimentación de sensores inteligentes, que proporciona los resultados de una de las alternativas estudiadas como fuente de suministro.

Document in pdf (Spanish)

Abstract – This document discuss the viability of creating a low power intelligent sensor. The main objective is the monitoring of parameters through a system that does not require wiring for the transmission of data and a power supply of the grid. Therefore, the information will be transmitted with a wireless communication device and will be powered with local power from the environment in which the sensor is located. The low-power microcontroller STM32L432 is used to acquire and process all data, and it which will remain in sleep mode until it is ordered to start capturing data in order to reduce power consumption. As regards the sending of data, different alternatives are tested for wireless communication. Subsequently, an analysis is performed about the energy that is obtained from three different energy sources connected to an energy harvesting system and it is established which is the most suitable for the application. This project requires the use as a basis the work “Characterization of Peltier cells as power supply for intelligent sensors”, which provides results of one of the alternatives studied as a power supply.

Caracterización de células Peltier para la alimentación de sensores inteligentes

Autor: Pérez Prieto, Sandra
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo

Acceso al documento de la tesis de máster en pdf.

Resumen – Los sensores proporcionan información que permite tener un control sobre parámetros del ambiente, del funcionamiento de un dispositivo o de un proceso industrial, y por tanto, permiten detectar si existe alguna situación de peligro sobre la que es necesario actuar. El problema es que a veces se deben situar en zonas inaccesibles y no es posible cambiar la batería de alimentación de manera sencilla. Por este motivo, se ha hecho necesario diseñar sistemas de energy harvesting, que son sistemas autoalimentados con la energía del ambiente y suministran energía al sistema electrónico en el que se encuentra el sensor. Este proyecto se centra en alimentar los sensores mediante diferencias de temperaturas obtenidas del sol o de procesos industriales empleando para ello una célula Peltier. Con el fin de determinar si estas fuentes proporcionan la energía suficiente se va a caracterizar el comportamiento de la célula Peltier y el sistema de energy harvesting en función de la
diferencia de temperaturas. Para confirmar la validez de la fuente se va a tener en cuenta el consumo del microcontrolador STM32L432, en el que estarán conectados los sensores y un módulo de comunicación inalámbrica encargado de transmitir los datos. Estos dispositivos son de bajo consumo ya que la energía recibida del ambiente es pequeña, y su selección y configuración se realiza en un proyecto complementario a este denominado “Sensor inteligente basado en microprocesador de bajo consumo”.

Document in pdf (Spanish)

Abstract – Sensors provide information that allows to have control over parameters of the environment, the operation of a device or an industrial process, and therefore, allow to detect if there is any dangerous situation on which it is necessary to act. The problem is that sometimes they must be located in inaccessible areas and it is not possible to change the battery power easily. For this reason, the design of energy harvesting systems has become necessary. These systems are self-powered with the energy of the environmenta nd supply energy to the electronic system in which the sensor is located. This project focuses on supplying the sensors using the differences in temperatures obtained from the sun or industrial processes using a Peltier cell. In order to determine if this source provides the sufficient energy, the behavior of the Peltier cell and the energy harvesting system will be characterized as a function of temperature difference. To confirm the validity of the source, the consumption of the STM32L432 microcontroller, which is the microcontroller in which the sensors and a wireless communication module will be connected, will be taken into account. This module will transmit the data and all these devices are of low-power because the energy received from the environment is limited and its selection and its configuration are carried out in a project complementary to this called “Smart sensor based on low power microprocessors”.

Light source follower with Arduino

Autor: Bajo Sánchez, Cristina
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo

 

Document in pdf (Spanish)

Video demonstration

Abstract – This work introduces the design of a light tracking system on two axes, based on the Arduino technology as analysis center and automated control of its peripherals. It mainly studies the way that the system operates and the achievement of reactions carried out by a set of devices when incident light is detected. It also analyses the peripheral components able to perform each of these functions and selects the most suitable ones among the different alternatives provided by the market place. This choice, together both the knowledge about the technical features and the possibility of being controlled and integrated in Arduino, takes a crutial role on the study and justification of the designed ensemble. This research process aims to incorporate the best components to the designed system in order to conduct each the proposed functions and, accordingly, the best features for a low-cost and dynamic nature prototype. Its multiple applications will make it a system that could meet many of the existing needs in the high-technology industries (energy, electronic, automation, home automation, etc.)

Keywords – light tracking, focal light, Arduino, photoresistor, servomotor, ultrasound sensor, LCD module.

Identificación de pulsos de descargas parciales en señales con ruido de conmutación

Autor: Martínez Merck, Beatriz
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo

Documento en PDF

Resumen – Las descargas parciales son pequeñas rupturas dieléctricas que se producen en el interior de los sistemas de aislamiento de los distintos equipos eléctricos. Estas descargas son las responsables del deterioro progresivo del sistema y de la degradación total con el paso del tiempo. Mediante su estudio se puede detectar cuál es la fuente que puede producir fallos.
El estudio de descargas parciales en corriente alterna está muy avanzado. En cambio, hay muy pocas publicaciones que hagan referencia a las descargas parciales en corriente continua, a pesar de que este tipo de corriente sea muy utilizada en sistemas HVDC o en equipos electrónicos.
Hoy en día, el estudio de las descargas parciales en corriente continua es de vital importancia, puesto que, actualmente, se producen fallos en sistemas de este tipo que son difíciles de identificar. En equipos de aeronaves, por ejemplo, se ha detectado que el inicio de las descargas parciales se produce casi a tensión nominal, debido a las bajas presiones durante el vuelo.
En este trabajo se plantean distintas formas de identificar descargas parciales en corriente continua, mediante la obtención de patrones, que varían en función del origen de las descargas. Por lo tanto, a través de la comparación de patrones es posible separar distintos tipos de descargas parciales. Además, se presenta un experimento que demostrará la eficacia de los métodos de identificación propuestos.
También se presenta otra forma de separar pulsos, basada en la separación de espectros en frecuencia, ya que se ha demostrado que los espectros en frecuencia de los pulsos producidos por ruido de conmutación son distintos a los producidos por una descarga parcial. Este método consiste en la obtención de un mapa PRH-PRL que sirve para separar en función de dos intervalos de frecuencia (PRH y PRL) los pulsos de descargas parciales de los de conmutación.
El objetivo principal del trabajo es automatizar esta forma de identificar descargas parciales. Para ello se ha generado un código de análisis en Matlab a partir del cual se eligen, de entre todos los datos propuestos, los candidatos a ser una posible descarga parcial. La separación de los candidatos en pulsos de descargas parciales y en pulsos de conmutación se visualiza mediante el mapa PRH-PRL.
Con el fin de facilitar el análisis, se ha creado una interfaz en Guide, una herramienta de Matlab.

Keywords – HVDC, partial discharges, noise, clustering, identification.

Energy harvesting from partial discharges

Autor: Molina Sanz, Javier
Director: Robles Muñoz, Guillermo

Bachelor’s thesis in pdf

Abstract – Several manners of extracting energy have become popular in the last years. In particular, energy from magnetic fields captured by inductive principles is one of the most important methods regarding energy harvesting. Obtaining energy from high-power low-frequency signals is currently possible, but the aim of this report goes further. Partial discharge phenomena are revealed outside the insulation as high-frequency pulsing signals produced under high-voltage situations that contributes to the deterioration of the electrical machinery, causing even their failure. It is very important to localize this phenomenon in order to avoid possible futures breakdowns. This project demonstrates how to extract energy from high frequency inductive phenomena. Particularly, the feasibility to harvest energy from partial discharge occurrence is satisfactorily studied. Several energy levels are accumulated in a capacitor depending on the topology implemented. Energy from partial discharges pulses has not been accumulated to date. This report discuss a relation between the voltage across a capacitor and partial discharge events leading to a possible detection system.